SYLLABUS- TAMILNADU PUBLIC SERVICE EXAMINATION HORTICULTURE AND RECRUITMENT

SYLLABUS OF TNPSC HORTICULTURE RECRUITMENT

SYLLABUS FOR PG DEGREE STANDARD:
SUBJECT CODE:279
UNIT- I: PRINCIPLES OF HORTICULTURE
Scope and importance of horticulture – Scenario of horticulture industry in the regional,
National and global economy – Area and production – Export and import – Nutritive value of
horticultural crops – Horticultural therapy – Role of soil and climate on crop production – Planting system – HDP, UHDP and meadow orchard – Importance and methods of Irrigation
– Water stress management – Essential and beneficial nutrients – Classification – Functions
and deficiency symptoms of primary, secondary and micronutrients in horticulture crops – Fertigation – Weed management – Training and pruning – Cropping systems – Mulching – Role of growth regulators – Off season production – Physiological disorders and its remedies – Pests and diseases management strategies – Maturity indices – Harvest – Grading – Post
harvest handling – Importance of protected cultivation in horticultural crops – Vegetable
forcing – Hydroponics – Nutrient Film Technique – Aeroponics – Precision horticulture – Commercial horticulture – GAP – GMP – Organic horticulture and certification – Horticulture
developmental agencies, programmes and commodity boards.


UNIT – II: PROPAGATION AND NURSERY TECHNIQUES OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Sexual propagation, principles, advantages and disadvantages – Apomixis, polyembryony,
seed dormancy and methods to overcome the dormancy – Factors influencing seed
germination – Protrays – Containers – Media – Growing structures – Management of fruit
nursery – Asexual propagation – Principles, advantages and disadvantages – Mist chamber – Rooting of vegetatively propagated plants – Physiological, anatomical and bio chemical basis
of root induction – Layering, Grafting and budding principles – Methods – Problems and
measures to overcome – Stock and scion relationship – Incompatibility – Propagation through
specialized plant parts, rejuvenation of senile orchards through top working, progeny orchard
and bud wood bank – Hardening – Nutrient management, pest and disease management in
nursery. Nursery certification-micro propagation – principles and concepts – in vitro clonal
propagation techniques – Media – Growth hormones – Callus induction – Direct and indirect
organogenesis – Synthetic seeds – Meristem culture – Embryogenesis – Micro-grafting – Callus induction and sub culturing – Hardening – Packing and transport of micro propagated
plants.

UNIT – III: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Important phases of growth and development – Definitions, photosynthetic productivity, leaf
area index (LAI) – optimum LAI in horticultural crops. Canopy development: Different stages
of growth, growth curves, growth analysis in horticultural crops. Plant bio-regulators – Auxin,
gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, inhibitors and retardants, basic functions, biosynthesis, role in
crop growth and development, propagation, flowering, fruit setting, fruit thinning, fruit
development, fruit drop and fruit ripening. physiological basis of training and pruning, source
and sink relationship. Seed development and maturation, seed dormancy and bud dormancy,
causes and breaking methods in horticultural crops. factors affecting flowering, physiology of
flowering, photoperiodism in horticultural crops. Physiology of fruit growth and development,
fruit setting, ripening- study of chemical manipulations on growth and development,
understanding stress impact on growth and development.
UNIT – IV: BREEDING OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Scope and importance of plant breeding in horticultural crops – Breeding systems and
objectives – Plant genetic resources – Modes of reproduction – Mechanisms of pollination
control, sterility and incompatibility – Effect of mating systems. Methods of breeding in
annual vegetable crops(cross and self pollinated crops) – Approaches for crop improvement – Introduction, selection, hybridization – Pedigree breeding, bulk, single seed descent
method, mass selection, recurrent and reciprocal recurrent selection, back cross breeding – Heterosis breeding – Development of F1 hybrids, synthetics, composites, mutation breeding,
polyploidy breeding, breeding for quality traits – Resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic
stress. Methods of breeding in fruit crops – Objectives– modes of reproduction – Approaches
for crop improvement – Introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation breeding , polyploidy
breeding, breeding for quality traits – Resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses – Biotechnological interventions. In vitro and molecular approaches – Molecular tools for
breeding – Molecular markers – Protein based and PCR based detection for genetic
confirmation – in vitro mutation breeding – Genetic transformation methods – Vector
transformation and particle bombardment – RNAi technology – Emerging concepts and
applications in horticultural crops.

UNIT – V: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS
Scope and importance – Current scenario on national and international level production and
trade of fruit crops – Field gene bank and cryopreservation of fruit crops – Species – Varieties / hybrids – Climate and soil requirements and its influence on crop growth – propagation methods and nursery technologies – Rootstocks influence-planting systems
including high density planting(HDP) and ultra high density planting(UHDP) – Canopy
management and crop regulation – Water management – Nutrient management – Fertigation
– Cropping systems – Training and pruning – Mulching – Weed management – Use of plant
growth regulators – Special horticultural practices – Role of biotic and abiotic factors, limits of
fruit production and their management – Nutrient deficiency and physiological disorder and its
corrective measures – Maturity indices – Harvesting – Ripening – Post harvest management – Supply chain management of important fruit crops : Mango, Banana, Acidlime, Sweet
Orange, Grapes, Papaya, Guava, Sapota, Pineapple, Jackfruit, Pomegranate, Annona, Ber,
Aonla, Apple, Pear, Plum, Peach, Strawberry, Litchi, Avocado, Walnut and Almond and
minor fruit crops.
UNIT – VI: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Scope and importance of warm, cool and under exploited vegetable crops -Current scenario
on national and international level of production and trade of vegetable crops – Types of
vegetable farming – Commercial varieties / hybrids – Climatic and soil requirements – Seasons – Seed rate and seed treatment – Nursery management – Protray nursery – Sowing/planting – Cropping systems – Nutrient management – Fertigation – Irrigation
management – Plant growth regulators – Intercultural operations, weed management – Mulching – Biotic and abiotic stresses and their management – Nutrient deficiency and
physiological disorder and its corrective measures – Maturity standards – Harvesting – Post
harvest management -Protected cultivation – Precision farming – Seed production
techniques of vegetable crops: Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli and Capsicum (Sweet pepper), Bhendi, Leguminous Vegetables (Beans, Peas, Cluster beans – Cowpea – Dolichos bean); Bulbous
vegetables (onion); Tuber crops – (Potato, Tapioca, Sweet potato, Elephant footyam,
Colacassia); Cucurbitaceous Vegetables (Cucumber, Bittergourd, Snakegourd, Ridgegourd,
Ashgourd, Musk melon, Watermelon, Pumpkin) – Cruciferous vegetables (Cabbage,
Cauliflower and Knolkhol); Root vegetables (Carrot, Radish, Beetroot, Turnip) – Leafy
vegetables (Spinach, Lettuce, Palak, Amaranthus) – Perennial vegetables (Drumstick,
Coccinea) – Underexploited vegetables.

UNIT – VII: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF COMMERCIAL FLOWER CROPS AND
LANDSCAPING
Scope and importance of floriculture industry – Loose flower production and trade – National
and international status – Commercial varieties/ hybrids – Climatic and soil requirements – Field preparation – Season – Systems of planting, transplanting techniques – Precision
farming techniques – Water and nutrient management, Weed management – Training and
pruning, Special horticultural practices – Pinching, disbudding, use of growth regulators – Physiological disorders and remedies – Biotic and abiotic stress management – Harvest
indices, harvesting techniques – Post -harvest handling and grading, pre-cooling, packing
and storage, transportation and marketing. value addition – Dry flowers – Pigment extraction – Concrete and essential oil extraction of important loose flower crops – Jasmine, Scented
Rose, Chrysanthemum, Tuberose, Marigold, Crossandra, Celosia, Gomphrena, Nerium. Scope and importance of cut flowers – Production and trade – Global and National scenario – Special nursery practices, growing environment, open cultivation, protected cultivation, soil
requirements, soil decontamination techniques, planting methods, influence of environmental
parameters, light, temperature, moisture, humidity and CO2 on growth and flowering – Water
and nutrient management, Fertigation, weed management, ratooning, training and pruning,
special horticultural practices – Use of growth regulators, flower forcing and year round
flowering through physiological interventions, chemical regulation, physiological disorders
and remedies, environmental manipulation – Biotic and abiotic stress management – Cut
flower standards and grades, harvest indices, harvesting techniques, post-harvest handling of
cut Rose, cut Chrysanthemum, carnation, gerbera, anthurium, orchids, gladiolus, cut foliages
and fillers.
Principles of landscape designing – Styles of gardening – Types of gardening viz.,
Mughal, Japanese, English, Persian, Italian, French gardening – Garden components – Plants for container growing – Indoor plants – Plants for instant gardens – Plants for spring,
summer, winter and autumn – Ornamental trees and burlapping – Shrub, annuals, climbers
and creepers, hedge and edge plants (foliage and flowering) – Cactus and succulent,
xeriscapping – Interior scaping – Garden adornments – Principles and styles of flower
arrangements – Bonsai styles and culture – Different gardening: industrial, institutional,
public and private landscaping – Vertical garden – Roof garden – Terrace garden – Sky rise
garden – Scenic gardens – Landscaping for roadways and traffic islands – Garden with water features and water conservation – Speciality garden – Dish, terrarium, bottle, miniature, bog
and rock garden. Lawn – Classification of turf grasses – Conditions for healthy turf – Soil
properties, micro irrigation, nutrient management – Turf grass establishment and
maintenance – Astroturf and maintenance – Overview of software for Computer Aided
Design and Drafting (CADD) – AUTOCAD plants and design – AUTOCAD – File handling.
UNIT – VIII: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF SPICES AND PLANTATION CROPS
Scope and importance of spices and plantation crops – Present status – National and
International trade – Climatic and soil requirements – Commercial varieties/hybrids – Season – Propagation – Sowing/planting – Seed rate and seed treatment – Nutrient and water
management – Intercropping – Mixed cropping – Multitier cropping – Weed management – Mulching – Shade and canopy regulation – Nutrient deficiencies – Biotic and abiotic stress
management – Harvest and post-harvest management and processing – Organic
farming and certification of major spices and plantation crops – Spice crops : Black pepper,
Cardamom, Turmeric, Ginger, Coriander, Fenugreek, Fennel, Cumin and Ajowan, Nutmeg,
Clove, Cinnamon, Allspice, Tamarind, Garcinia, Garlic, Vanilla, Curry Leaf and Paprika.
Plantation crops: Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cashew, Coconut, Oilpalm, Palmyrah, Arecanut,
Cocoa and Betelvine
UNIT – IX: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC CROPS
Scope and importance of medicinal and aromatic plants. – Production and trade – National
and International scenario of herbal and perfumery industry, WTO – Export and import status,
Indian system of medicine, in situ and ex situ conservation. Classification of medicinal and
aromatic crops – Organic production and certification – Climatic and soil requirements – Varieties and species – Propagation -Sowing/planting – Nutrient and water management, Weed management – Biotic and abiotic stress management – Harvest index-harvesting, Post
harvest handling – Drying, processing, grading, packing and storage, processing and value
addition; Quality standards in herbal products. Production of secondary metabolites – Distillation of essential oils and quality analysis. GAP – GCP – GMP. Medicinal crops:
Senna, Periwinkle, Coleus, Aswagandha, Glory Lily and Sarpagandha. Dioscorea sp., Aloe
vera, Phyllanthus amarus, Andrographis paniculata and Medicinal solanum , Isabgol, Poppy,
Safed Musli, Stevia rebaudiana and Mucuna pruriens, Aromatic crops: Palmarosa,
Lemongrass, Citronella, Vettiver, Geranium, Artemisia, Mentha, Ocimum, Eucalyptus,
Rosemary, Thyme, Patchouli, Lavender, Marjoram, Oreganum.

UNIT – X: POST- HARVEST TECHNOLOGY OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Scope and importance – National and Global scenario of post-harvest technology in
horticultural crops – Harvest indices, harvesting methods in horticultural crops – Harvesting
practices for specific market requirements – Influence of pre harvest factors on post harvest
quality and shelf life of horticultural crops – Factors leading to post harvest losses. Ethylene
action on ripening of fruits and ethylene management – Pre-cooling – Treatments prior to
transport – Chlorination, waxing, chemicals, bio-control agents and natural plant products.
Storage methods viz., ventilated, refrigerated, MAS, CAS – Physical injuries and disorders
during storage – Post-harvest disease and insect management. Packaging technologies – Packaging materials and transport – Principles and methods of preservation – Minimal
processing of fruits and vegetables – Pre-treatment – Blanching, canning and irradiation – Value added including, encapsulated fruit flavours, nutritionally enriched / fortified products in
horticultural crops – Food safety standards.

HORTICULTURE DEGREE STANDARD:
SUBJECT CODE:278
UNIT- I: FUNDAMENTALS OF HORTICULTURE
Scope and importance – State, National and Global scenario of horticultural crops – Area and
production – Import and export – Nutritive value of horticultural crops – Horticultural zones of
Tamil Nadu and India – National and regional agencies involved in promotion of horticultural
Industry in India (NHB, APEDA and Commodity Boards) – Classification of horticultural crops – Factors limiting horticultural crop production – Role of season – Soil and climate
requirements – Physical and chemical properties of soil – Climatic factors – Light,
temperature, photoperiod, relative humidity, rainfall, altitude, microclimate – Kitchen
gardening -Nutrition gardening – Truck gardening – Market gardening – Vegetable forcing – Protected and precision horticulture – Hydroponics, Aeroponics – Nutrient Film Technique – Horticulture therapy.
UNIT – II: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Important phases of growth and development – Bearing habits – Classification of horticultural
crops based on life cycle – Annual, biennial perennial (woody and herbaceous perennials) – Fruitfulness and unfruitfulness – External and internal factors associated with unfruitfulness – Physiology of flowering, fruit set, ripening and senescence – Fruitdrop – Causes and control
measures – Plant growth regulators – Functions and role in horticultural crops – Bud
dormancy – Dormancy breaking – Parthenocarpy – Parthenogenesis – Polyembryony – Stenospermocarpy – Vivipary – Apomixis.
UNIT – III: PROPAGATION OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Propagation – Definition – Establishment of nursery – Site selection – Tools and implements
propagation structures – Mist chamber, phytotron – Humidifiers – Greenhouse – Glasshouse
– Polyhouse – Shade net, glass house, poly tunnels, cold frames and hotbeds, pit nursery – Media and containers – Soil sterilization – Sexual propagation – Merits and demerits – Crops
propagated through seeds – Seed viability, longevity, dormancy, germination – Pre-sowing
treatment – stratification, scarification, seed priming, seedling vigour – Raised seed bed and
pro-tray nursery – Asexual propagation – Merits and demerits – Methods of vegetative
propagation – Identification of plus trees – Mother block, scion bank – Clonal nursery –Cutting – Layering – Grafting, budding types – Anatomical and physiological basis of grafting
– Stock scion relationship, graft compatibility -Budwood selection and certification – Propagation through specialized plant parts (bulbs, tubers, offsets, runners, suckers, slip,
crown, rhizomes, corms) – Quality management and nursery certification – Micro propagation
– Application – infrastructure requirements – Types of media – Stages of micro propagation – Micro grafting – in vitro propagation of important horticultural crops.
UNIT – IV: MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Planning – Layout and management of orchards – Fencing – Wind breaks and shelter beds – Spacing – Planting system – Physical and chemical properties – Soil reaction – acid, saline
and alkaline soils – Soil fertility – Essential elements –Functions – Organic manures and
inorganic fertilizers, bio-fertilizers, vermi-composting – Applications and management – Nutrient deficiencies and corrective measures – Physiological disorders and remedies –
Irrigation – Critical stages of water requirement – Effect of water stress on crop yield – Anti-
transpirants – management of irrigation water quality – Conventional and micro irrigation – Fertigation – Mulching – Sod culture – Weed management – Application growth regulators – Training and pruning principles and methods – Rejuvenation of senile and old orchards – Cropping systems – Cover cropping – Multitier cropping –Intercropping – Special horticultural
techniques (pinching, thinning, disbudding, blanching, smudging, notching, ringing) – Principles of organic horticulture – GAP and GMP.
UNIT – V: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS
Scope and importance of fruit crops – Composition and uses – Origin and distribution – Species – Season – Climate and soil requirement – Varieties and hybrids – Propagation
techniques – Planting systems and planting density -Including High density planting (HDP)
and ultra high-density planting (UHDP) –spacing – Water and nutrient management – Fertigation – Weed management – Canopy management – Training and pruning –
Intercultural practices – Off season production – Special horticultural techniques – Use of
plant growth regulators – Maturity indices – Harvest and yield – Nutrient deficiencies and
physiological disorders and its corrective measures and management of important pest
and diseases of important fruit crops :- Mango, Banana, Acidlime, Sweet orange, Mandarin,
Grapes, Papaya, Guava, Sapota, Pineapple, Jackfruit, Pomegranate, Aonla, Annona, Ber,
Apple, Pear, Plum, Peach, Strawberry, Litchi, Avocado, Walnut and Almond and minor
tropical, arid and temperate fruit crops.

UNIT- VI: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Scope and importance of vegetable crops – Composition and uses – Origin and distribution
– Area and production – Soil and climatic requirements – Varieties and hybrids – Propagation methods – Seed rate – Sowing and nursery practises – Containerized seedling
production – Season – Planting methods – Water, nutrient and weed management – Fertigation – Training for vegetables – Intercultural practices – Maturity indices – Harvest
and yield – Nutrient deficiencies and physiological disorder and its corrective measures of
important vegetable crops: Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli and Capsicum (Sweet Pepper), Bhendi, Leguminous vegetables (Beans, Peas, Cluster beans, Cowpea, Dolichos bean); Bulbous
vegetables (Onion, Garlic); Tuber crops – (Potato, Tapioca, Sweet potato, Elephant
footyam, Colacassia); Cucurbitaceous vegetables (Cucumber, Bittergourd, Snakegourd,
Ridgegourd, Ashgourd, Muskmelon, Watermelon, Pumpkin) – Cruciferous vegetables (Cabbage, Cauliflower and Knolkhol); Root vegetables (Carrot,
Radish, Beetroot, Turnip) – Leafy vegetables (Spinach, Lettuce, Palak, Amaranthus) – Perennial vegetables (Drumstick, Coccinea) – Protected cultivation of vegetable crops – Precision farming of important vegetable crops and seed production.
UNIT – VII: FLORICULTURE & LANDSCAPE GARDENING
Scope and importance of flower crops production – Uses – Origin and distribution – Area
and production – Climate and soil requirement – Species and varieties – Propagation,
season – Spacing and planting methods – Irrigation, nutrient management – Fertigation – Weed management – Training and pruning – Intercultural operations – Special horticultural
techniques – Growth regulators – Off season production – Maturity indices – Harvest and
yield and management of important pest and diseases for important loose flower crops:
Jasmine, Rose, Tuberose, Chrysanthemum, Marigold, Nerium and Crossandra – Cut
flowers – Rose, Carnation, Anthurium, Orchid and Gerbera – Cutfoliage and fillers.
Principles of Landscape designing – Styles of gardening – Types of gardening viz.,Hindu,
English, Mughal, Japanese, Persian, Italian, French gardening -Garden components – Trees foliage flowering and avenue trees – Burlapping –Shrubs – Flo we rin g a n n u a ls
creepers and Climbers – Cacti and succulents -Lawn – Astroturf – Types of grasses –
Layout, planting and maintenance of lawn – Hedge and edge plants – Indoor plants and
interior scaping – Garden adornments – Principles and styles of flower arrangements – Bonsai styles and culture – Industrial, Institutional, Public and Private landscaping – Special
types of gardening – Bog garden, dish, terrarium, bottle, roof, vertical gardening and green
wall.

UNIT – VIII: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF SPICES AND PLANTATION CROPS
Scope and Importance of spices and plantation crops – Composition and uses – Origin and
distribution – Area and production – Climate and soil requirements – Species and varieties – Season, seed rate / propagation methods –Spacing – Planting system – High density
planting – Irrigation and nutrient management – Fertigation and weed management – Training and pruning – Cropping systems – Multitier cropping – Cover cropping – Inter
cropping – Growth regulators – Mulching – Shade and canopy regulation – Maturity indices,
harvest, yield and management of important pest and diseases and processing
m e t h o d s of important plantation and spice crops: Major, seed, tree, herbal spices and
minor spices – Black Pepper, Cardamom, Turmeric, Ginger, Curry leaf, Clove, Nutmeg,
Cinnamon, Coriander, Fenugreek, Cumin, Tamarind, all spice and vanilla – Plantation crops
– Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Cocoa, Coconut, Oilpalm, Cashew, Palmyrah, Arecanut.
UNIT – IX: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC CROPS
Scope and importance of medicinal and aromatic crops – Composition and uses – Origin
and distribution – Area and production – Ex situ and insitu conservation – Classification of
medicinal and aromatic crops – Constraints in medicinal plant cultivation – Climate and soil – Varieties – Propagation – Nursery practices – Planting methods – Cropping systems – Manures & fertilizers – Irrigation – Intercultural operations – Harvest indices – Harvest &
yield and management of important pest and diseases – Production systems – Contract
farming – GAP – GCP – GMP – Organic production and certification – Classification and
distillation methods of essential oils – Secondary metabolite production – Value addition – Organisational support for promotion of medicinal and aromatic crops – Medicinal crops:
Senna, Periwinkle, Glory lily, Aswagandha, Medicinal coleus and Solanum, Sweet flag,
Aloe, Isabgol, Phyllanthus, Stevia, Opium poppy. Aromatic crops: Lemon grass,
Citronella, Vetiver, Ocimum, Davana, Mint, Geranium, Patchouli and Eucalyptus.
UNIT – X: POST- HARVEST TECHNOLOGY OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Importance of post-harvest handling in horticultural crops – Maturity indices – Post-harvest
handling methods – Washing – Grading – Waxing – Grades and standards – Methods of
packing – Types of containers and their advantages and disadvantages – Storage – Principles and methods of refrigerated and gas storage – Storage methods – Pre-cooling – Controlled atmospheric storage, Modified atmospheric storage – Low pressure storage and cold chain concept – Importance and scope of processing industry in India, general
principles of fruit and vegetable preservation like canning, dehydration, freezing,
fermentation – Use of chemicals(preservatives) and irradiation – GMP – Food safety and
quality control.


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